One of the premier manuals on Theory of Change thinking. Available in English and Arabic.
This post looks more specifically at outcomes, and how they can be developed and written. It highlights the benefits of focusing on outcomes for project planning, implementation and evaluation.
The authors demonstrate the use of nested actor-based ToCs, using the case of an impact evaluation of a complex police-reform program in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
In this article the authors examine the elements that make up a ToC, how ToCs can be visualized, and how ToCs relate to other organizational tools. Several suggestions are put forward to strengthen the existing ToC practice.
This is a two-part series on practical approaches to theories of change in conflict, security and justice programmes.
An overview of all the tutorials within Changeroo.
A tutorial on grouping Changeroo: a visual aid to help you keep your Theory of Change organised.
A tutorial on moving a ToC to another organisation account.
A tutorial on the difference between active and inactive Theories of Change in Changeroo.
A tutorial on the difference between public and private Theories of Change in Changeroo.
This paper argues that a Theory of Change approach demands a radical shift towards more and better learning in development thinking and practice. It draws on the research and workshop held at the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) in April 2015.
A book that has been seminal to ToC practice. It has a wealth of clear examples and is very helpful in clarifying some recurrent debates on planning and M&E terminologies.
This paper looks at the description of connections between events rather than the events themselves, because this is seen as a widespread ToC design weakness. Using examples six structural problems are described. Different solutions are suggested.
In this blog post, Theory of Change for learning is discussed; and how it offers social organisations a powerful basis for communication and stakeholder engagement.
In this webinar video, Patricia Rogers discusses Theory of Change, what it is and why it is important.
One of the premier manuals on Theory of Change thinking. Available in English and Arabic.
This guide aims to help you through your theory of change process and support you to produce something that strengthens the design and delivery of your projects, and gives you confidence in your approach to evaluation and learning.
This guide helps social purpose organisations to plan, monitor, evaluate and communicate their work in a way that makes practical sense of the complexity of social change processes and their measurement.
This guide is for planners and evaluators who are going to facilitate a process for creating a theory of change with community based programs and community change initiatives.
In this article, John Mayne walks us through some of the basic concepts and terms within ToC thinking, and addresses the key challenges for successful application of ToCs.
Does "total ownership" from different stakeholders involved in agreeing, developing and monitoring a ToC lead to ownership and attribution?
In this post we discuss how Theory of Change (ToC) thinking in general and Changeroo specifically can be of great value to organisations. We discuss the different functions of Changeroo and how these help organisations in realizing their mission.
In the webinar session, David Colby provides an insightful overview of Theory of Change methodology, and highlights the strengths of using such a tool for planning, strategy, organisational learning and evaluation.
This practice paper captures lessons from recent experiences on using 'Theories of Change' amongst organisations involved in the research-policy interface. The paper argues that Theory of Change will be inadequate in the context of complexity.
Hivos embarked on a process of action-oriented learning rethink and critically reflect on how to understand and accompany social organizations and local NGOs to develop social change in the South.
A research paper that discusses how The Asia Foundation uses ToC in its organisation. In a blog post the author summarizes the 6 key findings of his research and paper.
Most literature on “empowerment and accountability in fragile, conflict and violence affected settings” has been on Theory of Action. These are often confusingly termed ‘theories of change’. A clear distinction and more attention for ToCs are needed.
This article describes the use of a Theory of Change (ToC) model to develop a brief psychological intervention for common mental disorders and its’ evaluation through a cluster randomized controlled trial in Zimbabwe.
A case study of a US nonprofit organisation that used client feedback to test its Theory of Change.
This report explains the logic that underpins the Theory of Change for GROW and then presents an evidence review relevant to the assumptions embedded within it. GROW is an Australian organisation addressing disadvantage through employment.
Images and cartoons that can be used when facilitating a ToC process.
This document provides practical suggestions with regard to what is required for a good ToC process, assessment of the type of ToC capacity that can be strengthened and what capacity is required to be a good facilitator.
A collection of tools and methods that is useful for multi-stakeholder purposes.
Facilitating a ToC process entails various elements. From our experience there are two elements we find essential: the facilitation process and ToC capacities. These two cannot be separated in the process.
This IDS brief discusses graphic facilitation as part of intermediary facilitation processes and presents some useful visualisations to use.
This book makes available for practice the most important lessons from the evaluation of eight 'lobbying and advocacy' programs carried out over the past five years by alliances of civil society organisations working in international development.
This guide attempts to provide an overall framework with guiding principles for conducting an evaluation. The guide draws heavily on the experiences of the Centre for Development Innovation, particularly with its work around ‘managing for impact’.
This document introduces some of the key concepts of theory-based approaches to evaluation.
In this article the authors look at the points of connection and digression between Theories of Change and Realistic Evaluation. They discuss the importance of a contextualized perspective in evaluation.
This article presents a Theory of Change approach to planning educational reform initiatives with a focus on district level efforts.
Critiques the existing ToC practice and its emphasis on accountability, control and compliance. It stresses the notion of a ToC as a collaborative learning process and how a good theory for human change processes is as much art as it is science.
This is a review of three conflict affected countries using theories of change. It found out that the process of articulating and reviewing theories of change adds rigour and transparency, clarifies project logic, and highlights assumptions.
This paper reviews the concepts and common debates within the Theory of Change literature, resulting from a detailed analysis of available donor, agency and expert guidance documents. The authors followed up this review with fieldwork.
Building on "Theories of Change: time for a radical approach to learning in development", this World Bank blog post shares additional thoughts on the use of ToCs and how they might be improved.
This paper critically engages with the problem that much development thinking remains stuck in a linear planning model and makes clear why and how learning needs to be at the centre of adaptive development programming.
This ILAC Brief argues to look at causality as interventions that are contributory causes to certain results. ToCs show such contributory mechanisms. Combined with other methods, they explain how and why an intervention makes a difference.
The Theory of Change forms the backbone of any social impact measurement system. It links the day to day activities in your organisation to your overall mission or long term goals. This is a key step in deciding what you will need to measure.
This paper presents practical experience of implementing impact measurement within an impact investing context. It highlights case studies where investments have carried out evaluations and lessons learnt.
This paper identifies six principles for the successful application of a theory-based approach to impact evaluation.
The authors look at three case studies of how ToCs help impact investing move forward.
What if the ToC has gaps, leaves out important things – or is just plain wrong? This post looks at the risks when a ToC is inadequate.
This post defines a number of elements to indicate the quality of ToC thought and practice. Quality is a combination of the content, how it was constructed and its use.
A report on gender relations in ToC practice.
Gender inequality manifest itself through a complex web of forces, socially, culturally and historically entrenched in societies and relationships and cannot be changed by isolated interventions. Theory of Change thinking might be a helpful framework
This paper provides an illustration of how Theory of Change can provide a basis for a coherent and integrated approach to developing skills and capacities of staff implementing a project.
This article proposes ways to use programme theory for evaluating aspects of programmes that are complicated or complex.
This Working Paper provides a critical analysis of a series of CV&A cases from the Mwananchi Governance and Transparency Fund (GTF) programme in order to form an analytical framework for developing theories of change (ToCs) for CV&A projects.
Logic Models are a popular tool that can be used to help conceptualize your change effort. This site by the University of Wisconsin presents a variety of resources on logic models.
This document describes the Theory of Change approach and explains why it is a good fit for climate change adaptation programming. It highlights its differences with the more familiar logic model / logical framework (‘logframe’) approaches.
This article reviews current debates around ToC and draws the conclusion that ToC can address shortcomings of the logical framework.
The authors present a behaviour-based generic ToC model for both straightforward and more complex interventions. Examples are presented and the use of it during different stages of interventions are discussed.
A poster from the Outcome Mapping (OM) Lab 2014 describing how Outcome Mapping is being used with Theory of Change to improve the design of a project developed with Logical Framework.
This paper attempts to help read and thus navigate processes of social change. It reviews different theories of social change (emergent, transformative and projectable change) and seeks to bring them together into something that is more integrated.
The paper describes the process of facilitating a set of workshops and the advantages and compromises needed in combining a ToC approach with Outcome Mapping.
This review aims to determine how ToCs have been developed and used in the development and evaluation of public health interventions globally. It proposes a checklist for reporting on the use of ToC to ensure transparent reporting.
An overview of all the guiding content within Changeroo.
A comparison of logical frameworks and Theory of Change.
A discussion on how to build the culture and mindset appropriate for Theory of Change thinking.
An introduction to measuring and claiming impact.
Looking at a Theory of Change from a complexity perspective.